Grade 7 to 12 Teachers Guide | K to 12 Curriculum

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Mathematics is one subject that pervades life at any age and in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school. Mathematics as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.

The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10, are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.

Critical thinking, according to Scriven and Paul (1987) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

On the other hand, according to Polya (1945 & 1962), mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown.

These two goals are to be achieved with an organized and rigorous curriculum content, a well-defined set of high-level skills and processes, desirable values and attitudes, and appropriate tools, taking into account the different contexts of Filipino learners.

shs teachers guideThere are five content areas in the curriculum, as adopted from the framework prepared by MATHTED & SEI (2010): Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra, and Probability and Statistics.

The specific skills and processes to be developed are: knowing and understanding; estimating, computing and solving; visualizing and modelling; representing and communicating; conjecturing, reasoning, proving and decision-making; and applying and connecting.

The following values and attitudes are to be honed as well: accuracy, creativity, objectivity, perseverance, and productivity.

We recognize that the use of appropriate tools is necessary in teaching mathematics. These include: manipulative objects, measuring devices, calculators and computers, smart phones and tablet PCs, and the Internet.

We define context as a locale, situation, or set of conditions of Filipino learners that may influence their study and use of mathematics to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Contexts refer to beliefs, environment, language and culture that include traditions and practices, as well as the learner’s prior knowledge and experiences.

The framework is supported by the following underlying learning principles and theories: Experiential and Situated Learning, Reflective Learning, Constructivism,

Cooperative Learning and Discovery and Inquiry-based Learning. The mathematics curriculum is grounded in these theories.

Experiential Learning as advocated by David Kolb is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Experiential Learning theory defines learning as “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience” (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). Situated Learning, theorized by Lave and Wenger, is learning in the same context in which concepts and theories are applied.

Reflective Learning refers to learning that is facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real-life situations. Deeper learning occurs when learners are able to think about their experiences and process these, allowing them the opportunity to make sense of and derive meaning from their experiences.

Constructivism is the theory that argues that knowledge is constructed when the learner is able to draw ideas from his/her own experiences and connect them to new ideas.

Cooperative Learning puts premium on active learning achieved by working with fellow learners as they all engage in a shared task. The mathematics curriculum allows for students to learn by asking relevant questions and discovering new ideas. Discovery Learning and Inquiry-based Learning (Bruner, 1961) support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships, and concepts.


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2 Responses

  1. Patricia says:

    Module 1, Overcoming challenges: … English 10 Teacher‘s Guide Unit 1 … Grade Level Grade 10 Learning Area …

  2. Shiela S. Ramillete says:

    Why is it that there is no Teaching Guide for Food and Beverage Services fr Grade 7 or 8? I am looking forward to see a copy of it soon. thank u so much.

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